At the most sci-fi end of synthetic biology is the idea of synthetic life – entirely novel organisms produced from scratch using molecular building blocks.
This reminds me of a widely circulated statement (may be an apocryphal) by R.B. Woodward who received the Nobel Prize (1965) for the organic synthesis. In response to a question: "Will you next synthesize life". He replied: "I am quite happy with the way it is presently done".
But in the year 2010 Craig Venter and his team made the breakthrough.By manipulating the ‘instructions’ for life, synthetic biology is a field which allows us to probe into ideas about how life originated and what its minimal components are. Whilst entirely synthetic organisms or cells produced from scratch are yet to be produced, scientists have produced organisms with entirely synthetic genomes i.e. carrying genetic material that has been produced entirely synthetically.
Craig Venter and 'synthetic life'
In 2010, John Craig Venter, a high-profile and sometimes controversial figure in the fields of biotechnology and synthetic biology, made waves when his team produced what was called the first case of ‘synthetic life’. The team synthesised an entire genome (they printed every base of DNA) inserted into a Mycoplasma capricolum emptied of DNA. The resulting organism became known as Syn 1.0 and carried within its genome several encoded ‘watermarks’ including the names of all 46 scientists involved in the project.
Although some have described this as the first case of artificial life, it is important to remember that the genome itself and thus all the 'instructions' for the organism was based almost entirely on the genome of a pre-existing organism, Mycoplasma mycoides. Scientists are still yet to design an entirely new organism by writing a new genome.
A truly synthetic artificial cell remains to be created; so far there is no incidence of a living state (a self reproducing evolving system) that can come from a non-living state.